The Desert Biome is a biome mostly made out of sand. Desert places are easier to find ores because digging sand makes it faster to mine, as well as collect ores. Desert Biomes don't usually have lots of trees on them, and sometimes contain Mini Rainbow Biomes.
Primary vegetation that grows in the Desert Biome are Cactuses which drop the Cacti block with a sapling; and Coconut style trees which drop unrefined wood and a sapling for that style of tree.
Liquids are semi-rare in that there are not an abundance of pools in the desert biome and all liquids spawned are water. Rain in desert biomes will always be of the Acid Rain variant and cause damage when you are exposed to the sky.
Most NPCs that live in the desert will create a similar style home with a Hay roof and bamboo style doors. This biome may also spawn Primitive Sacrifical Altars which is a large unrefined wood pad with a chest, a sacrificial bed and several different styles of wooden decoration, as well as several Skulls on Spikes.
Monsters are random seed; nothing biome-specific stands out. There will be a minimum one bipedal and two quadrapedals (one hostile mob and one nonhostile mob) and 3 types of flying enemies for the day cycle and different enemies of the same types with higher HP and Damage for the night cycle.
Minerals:Diamond just under the surface has been observed, requires further information but this biome may have increased Diamond spawn rate on the surface.