On first use of a teleporter (such as the one shown in the picture to the right by the shop), you are asked to name the teleporter, for reference as to which teleporter this is. The default for the shop is "Outpost."
After naming a teleporter, it can be used to transport the character to any other teleporter (including the ship's teleporter). This provides for extremely fast access to important planets (such as a storage base or large-scale construction planet) when you need to transport items, or just plain forgot something in your travels.
An extremely important note (mentioned in each of the teleporters' descriptions) is that you will not be able to recover teleporters after you destroy them. This means you should choose very carefully in where you are putting your teleporters, or you will end up buying a new one.